Historical Version s - view previous versions of standard. Work Item s - proposed revisions of this standard. More E While use of this practice is intended to constitute all appropriate inquiries for purposes of the LLPsit is not intended that its use be limited to that purpose.
This practice is intended primarily as an approach to conducting an inquiry designed to identify recognized environmental conditions in connection with a property. No implication is intended that a person must use this practice in order to be deemed to have conducted inquiry in a commercially prudent or reasonable manner in any particular transaction.
Nevertheless, this practice is intended to reflect a commercially prudent and reasonable inquiry. See Section 1. Thus, these transactions are not included in the term commercial real estate transactions, and it is not intended to imply that such persons are obligated to conduct an environmental site assessment in connection with these transactions for purposes of all appropriate inquiries or for any other purpose.
In addition, no implication is intended that it is currently customary practice for environmental site assessments to be conducted in other unenumerated instances including but not limited to many commercial leasing transactions, many acquisitions of easements, and many loan transactions in which the lender has multiple remedies.
Consequently, this practice does not address many additional issues raised in transactions such as purchases of business entities, or interests therein, or of their assets, that may well involve environmental liabilities pertaining to properties previously owned or operated or other off-site environmental liabilities.
No practical standard can be designed to eliminate the role of judgment and the value and need for experience in the party performing the inquiry. The professional judgment of an environmental professional is, consequently, vital to the performance of all appropriate inquiries. Such additional services may include business environmental risk issues not included within the scope of this practice, examples of which are identified in Section 13 under Non-Scope Considerations.
Performance of this practice is intended to reduce, but not eliminate, uncertainty regarding the potential for recognized environmental conditions in connection with a propertyand this practice recognizes reasonable limits of time and cost. There is a point at which the cost of information obtained or the time required to gather it outweighs the usefulness of the information and, in fact, may be a material detriment to the orderly completion of transactions.
One of the purposes of this practice is to identify a balance between the competing goals of limiting the costs and time demands inherent in performing an environmental site assessment and the reduction of uncertainty about unknown conditions resulting from additional information.
Consistent with good commercial and customary practice, the appropriate level of environmental site assessment will be guided by the type of property subject to assessment, the expertise and risk tolerance of the userand the information developed in the course of the inquiry. Environmental site assessments must be evaluated based on the reasonableness of judgments made at the time and under the circumstances in which they were made.
Subsequent environmental site assessments should not be considered valid standards to judge the appropriateness of any prior assessment based on hindsight, new information, use of developing technology or analytical techniques, or other factors. Subject to Section 4. Therefore, this practice describes procedures to be followed to assist users in determining the appropriateness of using information in environmental site assessments performed more than one year prior to the date of acquisition of the property or for transactions not involving an acquisition the date of the intended transaction.
The system of prior assessment usage is based on the following principles that should be adhered to in addition to the specific procedures set forth elsewhere in this practice:. However, such information shall not be used without current investigation of conditions likely to affect recognized environmental conditions in connection with the property.
Additional tasks may be necessary to document conditions that may have changed materially since the prior environmental site assessment was conducted.
No specific legal relationship between the environmental professional and the user is necessary for the user to meet the requirements of this practice.
Controlled substances are not included within the scope of this standard. Additionally, an evaluation of business environmental risk associated with a parcel of commercial real estate may necessitate investigation beyond that identified in this practice see Sections 1.
The term recognized environmental conditions means the presence or likely presence of any hazardous substances or petroleum products in, on, or at a property : 1 due to any release to the environment ; 2 under conditions indicative of a release to the environment ; or 3 under conditions that pose a material threat of a future release to the environment.
De minimis conditions are not recognized environmental conditions.ASTM's steel standards are instrumental in classifying, evaluating, and specifying the material, chemical, mechanical, and metallurgical properties of the different types of steels, which are primarily used in the production of mechanical components, industrial parts, and construction elements, as well as other accessories related to them. The steels can be of the carbon, structural, stainless, ferritic, austenitic, and alloy types.
These steel standards are helpful in guiding metallurgical laboratories and refineries, product manufacturers, and other end-users of steel and its variants in their proper processing and application procedures to ensure quality towards safe use.
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Other Historical Standards. More D These tables are provided for standardized calculation of measured quantities of petroleum fluids regardless of point of origin, destination, or units of measure used by custom or statute.
Inherent in the Petroleum Measurement Tables is the recognition of the present and future position of computers in the petroleum industry. The actual standard represented by the Petroleum Measurement Tables is neither the hardcopy printed tables nor the set of equations used to represent the density data but is an explicit implementation procedure used to develop computer subroutines for Tables 5, 6, 23, 24, 53, and The standardization of an implementation procedure implies the standardization of the set of mathematical expressions, including calculational sequence and rounding procedures, used within the computer code.
Absolute adherence to the outlined procedures will ensure that all computers and computer codes of the future, meeting the stated specifications and restrictions, will be able to produce identical results. Hence, the published implementation procedures are the primary standard, the distributed subroutines are the secondary standard, and the published tables are produced for convenience.
Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. ICS Number Code Scope 1. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.To reach the main site, click here. Applied to just about everything from petroleum and steel to cement and sustainability, ASTM standards help companies improve quality and competitiveness while improving the lives of millions around the world every day.
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Your browser does not support the video tag. Astm Standards. Helping Our World Work Better. Learn More. Learning Programs In-person and online courses to advance your skills to the next level. ASTM SpecBuilder — enabling you to develop your own internal standards, standard operating procedures and specifications using our advanced online collaboration and balloting system. For more information Contact Us akorniliev astm.ASTM B covers the apparatus, procedure, and conditions required to create and maintain the salt spray fog test environment.
Suitable apparatus which may be used General Requirements: 4. ASTM Ee1 pdf free download. Standard Guide for Greener Cleanups.
ASTM Ee1 describes a process for identifying, evaluating, and incorporating best management practices BMPs and, when deemed appropriate, for integrating a quantitative evaluation into a cleanup to reduce ASTM A pdf free download. ASTM A covers the requirements for carburizing bearing-quality steel to be used in the manufacture of anti-friction bearings.
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ASTM E pdf free download. The purpose of this test method, as a part of a suite of radio communication test methods, is to quantitatively ASTM E covers the determination of the resistance to fracture of metallic materials under Mode I loading at static rates using either of the following notched and ASTM D pdf free download.
ASTM D covers the quantitative determination of ASTM D cover the analysis of barium sulfate pigment. These test methods are used to determine the purity of barium sulfate and to determine Posts navigation the 1 page the 2 page the 3 page the 4 page the 5 page … the 28 page.Historical Version s - view previous versions of standard. More B This specification covers hard-drawn round copper wire for electrical purposes. The wire shall be tested and shall conform to the requirements as to tensile strength, elongation, and electrical resistivity.
No joints shall be made in the completed wire. Joints in the wire and rod made prior to final drawing shall be in accordance with the best commercial practice. This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application.04 27 17 Secrets of the Manual
ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
Scope 1. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.Digital advertising has had its wake up call and can no longer hit the snooze button. The industry has been jolted into action by the continued rise of ad blocking software across desktop and mobile devices, and forecasts of billions in lost advertising revenue.
We predict marketers will fight back with genuine improvements for consumers.
More confident that UX basics will be addressed, publishers will be proactive in trying to win the hearts, minds and screen space of consumers. Marketing campaigns will focus both on deterring new ad blocking users and discouraging existing users. The ethics of ad blocking will also be questioned as software providers increasingly attempt to profit from ad authorisation. Meanwhile, the technical ping-pong against ad blockers will continue.
This will return short-term dollars to publishers but will override consumer wishes, so the safer long-term strategy will be to address the core concerns which have drawn people to ad blocking.
Expect to see the digital advertising industry urgently responding to these specific challenges throughout the coming year. In a media landscape of ongoing dramatic change, advertisers will more aggressively adopt multiple media alternatives to reach and connect with their audiences throughout 2017.
Synergies will become more important than any single channel and the collective weight of all channels put together. Marketers will be focused on understanding the role each media plays within a broader plan and how they rub off to produce synergistic effects. The concept of synergies has been around for some time but what has changed is the planning aspect and the application of a discipline to the selection of channels to maximise its impact. These numbers are not only growing but increasingly we are seeing non-TV synergies emerging as advertisers and agencies start to get their heads around this.
But they offer opportunities for forming different kinds of relationships that meet consumer needs at different times and occasions. Optimising media duplication and phasing can go a long way in driving synergies but as a first step, marketers will need to ensure that every medium has a role to play within the broader media mix.
At the top of the marketing to do list will be gaining a rapid understanding of the needs, aspirations and behaviours of Generation Z, also referred to as the post-millennials and centennials.
Brands will re-think their digital presence to emphasise co-creation, authenticity and transparency essential for connecting with Generation Z Brands will step up efforts to reach the emerging Gen Z consumer segment in 2017. Marketers should invest in digital platforms to offer Gen Z consumers opportunities to interact and co-create.
Transparency and imagination will be important as well as experimentation with augmented reality and virtual reality marketing to reach this highly imaginative and visual audience. Joline McGoldrick is Vice President of Insights and Product Marketing for the Media and Digital Practice of Kantar Millward Brown. In 2017, successful brand stories will be built on delivering a consistent experience across touchpoints, and less on the number of touchpoints used.
Michael Nicholas leads the Global Connected Solutions team at Kantar TNS, where he advises clients on digital and integrated marketing activities. Download PDF Content marketing: a new wave of experimentation Content marketing in 2017 will continue to gain traction at a fast pace.
New creative and media possibilities, particularly on mobile, will drive innovation and experimentation in both content and formats as marketers look to provide consumers with content that is useful, entertaining, or both. Marketers will have to put away some money for experimentation with and creation of new content that will appeal to the imagination.